IUCN SSC’s Ex situ guidelines
The IUCN Species Survival Commission published the “Guidelines on the Use of Ex situ Management for Species Conservation” (IUCN 2014), which provides guidance on whether and when to employ ex situ measures in a species conservation plan, the precise role(s) that the ex situ measures could play, and how to thoroughly integrate those activities into the overall conservation plan for the species. This integration can optimize environmental stewardship to decrease the risk of extinction.
CPSG and the One Plan approach
Integrated conservation planning takes advantage of a wide variety of backgrounds and expertise, with stakeholders and conservation scientists working together to consider critically needed conservation measures. The range of potential conservation measures considered can include both in situ and ex situ measures. The resulting action plan is considered an integrated conservation plan, even if after careful consideration of all available resources, no ex situ conservation measures are determined to be justified or necessary.
This holistic framework for species conservation planning, known as the “One Plan approach”, was developed by the IUCN Species Survival Commission’s Conservation Planning Specialist Group (CPSG). The approach features direct involvement of all stakeholders, whenever possible – fishers, farmers, local community leaders, conservation scientists, relevant NGO representatives, government wildlife managers, and other experts with relevant expertise, such as veterinarians, – combined with science-based decision making to create a species or population conservation action plan (Byers et al. 2013).